Coconut Research

The journal articles listed below are just a small sampling of the many published studies involving coconut oil, medium-chain triglycerides, and other related subjects.

Is there enough evidence to support the health claims attributed to coconut? Go here for the answer.

Coconut Oil Studies

Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2016 Sep-Oct;6(5):447-452.

In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of monolaurin against Candida albicans biofilms. PeerJ. 2016 Jun 22;4:e2148.

Algae-inhibitory effect and mechanism of plant source n-caprylic acid. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2016 Mar;45(2):189-93, 199.

Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Coconut Oil, Probiotics, and Ketoconazole on Candida albicans Isolated in Children with Early Childhood Caries: An In Vitro Study, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Scientifica, February 2016, Volume 2016, Article ID 7061587, 5 pages

The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016 Jan 1;17(1):38-41.

Manipulation of Host Diet To Reduce Gastrointestinal Colonization by the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida albicans. mSphere. 2015 Nov 18;1(1). pii: e00020-15.

Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis – A preliminary report. Niger Med J. 2015 Mar-Apr;56(2):143-147.

Treatment of Dermal Infections With Topical Coconut Oil, A review of efficacy and safety of Cocos nucifera L. in treating skin infections, Natural Medicine Journal, May 2014 Vol. 6 Issue 5

Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of capric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: a comparative study with lauric acid. J Dermatol Sci. 2014 Mar;73(3):232-240

Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97(8):5088-5100.

Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97(8):5045-5064.

Antimicrobial effects of virgin coconut oil and its medium-chain fatty acids on Clostridium difficile. J Med Food. 2013 Dec;16(12):1079-1085.

Health Properties of Coconut Oil. Agro Food Industry Hi Tech. May/June 2013 Vol 24n3.

Production of medium chain saturated fatty acids with enhanced antimicrobial activity from crude coconut fat by solid state cultivation of Yarrowia lipolytica. Food Chem. 2013 Feb 15;136(3-4):1345-1349.

Effects of inhibitory activity on mycelial growth of Candida albicans and therapy for murine oral candidiasis by the combined use of terpinen-4-ol and a middle-chain fatty acid, capric acid. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2013;133(1):133-140.

Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:954542.

Coconut oil may prevent tooth decay. Medical News Today. 04 Sep 2012

Inhibition of Candida mycelia growth by a medium chain fatty acids, capric acid in vitro and its therapeutic efficacy in murine oral candidiasis. Med Mycol J. 2012;53(4):255-261.

Short- and medium-chain fatty acids exhibit antimicrobial activity for oral microorganisms. Arch Oral Biol. 2011 Jul;56(7):650-654

A study of the clinical activity of a gel combining monocaprin and doxycycline: a novel treatment for herpes labialis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2012 Jan;41(1):61-67

Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Parasitol Res. 2011 Apr;108(4):1041-1046

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Mar;4(3):241-247

Treatment of fresh poultry carcases with emulsions of glycerol monocaprate (monocaprin) to reduce contamination with Campylobacter and psychrotrophic bacteria. Br Poult Sci. 2011 Feb;52(1):11-19.

Killing of Campylobacter on contaminated plastic and wooden cutting boards by glycerol monocaprate (monocaprin). Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010 Sep;51(3):319-324

Stimuli-responsive liposome fusion mediated by gold nanoparticles. ACS Nano. 2010 Apr 27;4(4):1935-1942.

Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo but not Lactobacillus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Feb;54(2):597-601

The antimicrobial activity of liposomal lauric acids against Propionibacterium acnes. Biomaterials. 2009 Oct;30(30):6035-6040

Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris. J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Oct;129(10):2480-2488

The Effect Of Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation For Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Children Aged 3 To 60 Months Admitted At The Philippine Children’s Medical Center: A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial, CHEST, October 29, 2008

Anticoccidial versus ruminal defaunation efficacy of medium chain triglyceride depending on delivery route in calves. J Vet Med Sci. 2009 Sep;71(9):1243-1245.

Antibacterial study of the medium chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides: individual effects and synergistic relationships. Pol J Microbiol. 2009;58(1):43-47.

Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis. Dermatitis. 2008 Nov-Dec;19(6):308-315.

A Supplement Based on Zn-Enriched Virgin Coconut Oil as an Antifungal agent for Vaginal Candidiasis Patients. Journal of Microbiology Indonesia Vol.2 No.2 2008

Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) Enriched with Zn as Immunostimulator for Vaginal Candidiasis Patient. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, Vol 15, No 4 (2008)

Novel antibacterial activity of monolaurin compared with conventional antibiotics against organisms from skin infections: an in vitro study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007 Oct;6(10):991-998.

In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):384-387

Virucidal activities of medium- and long-chain fatty alcohols and lipids against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 2: comparison at different pH levels. Arch Virol. 2007;152(12):2225-2236

Diet supplemented with MCT oil in the management of childhood diarrhea. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(2):286-292.

Antimicrobial activity of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid against microorganisms associated with poultry processing. J Food Prot. 2006 Jul;69(7):1611-1615.

Antimicrobial activity of monocaprin: a monoglyceride with potential use as a denture disinfectant. Acta Odontol Scand. 2006 Feb;64(1):21-26.

Stable concentrated emulsions of the 1-monoglyceride of capric acid (monocaprin) with microbicidal activities against the food-borne bacteria Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 Jan;72(1):522-526.

Development of a virucidal cream containing the monoglyceride monocaprin. Pharmazie. 2005 Dec;60(12):897-899.

Antibacterial effect of caprylic acid and monocaprylin on major bacterial mastitis pathogens. J Dairy Sci. 2005 Oct; 88(10):3488-3495.

Antimicrobial activity of saturated fatty acids and fatty amines against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Sep;27(9):1321-1326.

Medium-chain fatty acids decrease colonization and invasion through hilA suppression shortly after infection of chickens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Jun;70(6):3582-3587.

Medium chain triglycerides enhance intestinal recovery from viral diarrhea. Philipp J Pediatr. 2004 Jan-Mar 53(1):39-41.

In vitro effect of C2-C18 fatty acids on Salmonellas. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2004;49(2):199-202.

Antibacterial actions of fatty acids and monoglycerides against Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003 May 15;36(1-2):9-17.

Acute mechanism of medium chain fatty acid-induced enhancement of airway epithelial permeability. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 May;305(2):440-450

The combined use of whole Cuphea seeds containing medium chain fatty acids and an exogenous lipase in piglet nutrition. Arch Tierernahr. 2003 Feb;57(1):49-63.

Susceptibility of Escherichia coli to C2-C18 fatty acids. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2003;48(6):731-735.

Bactericidal effects of fatty acids and monoglycerides on Helicobacter pylori. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2002 Oct;20(4):258-262.

Mutations in erg4 affect the sensitivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to medium-chain fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Apr 15;1581(3):109-118.

In vitro killing of Candida albicans by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Nov;45(11):3209-3212.

Killing of Gram-positive cocci by fatty acids and monoglycerides. APMIS. 2001 Oct;109(10):670-678.

Effect of fatty acids on arenavirus replication: inhibition of virus production by lauric acid. Arch Virol. 2001;146(4):777-790.

Hydrogels containing monocaprin prevent intravaginal and intracutaneous infections with HSV-2 in mice: impact on the search for vaginal microbicides. J Med Virol. 2000 May;61(1):107-110.

In vitro susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Nov;43(11):2790-2792.

Development and evaluation of microbicidal hydrogels containing monoglyceride as the active ingredient. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Oct;88(10):1011-1015.

Medium-chain triglycerides inhibit growth of Malassezia: implications for prevention of systemic infection. Crit Care Med. 1999 Sep;27(9):1781-1786.

In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Sep;42(9):2290-2294.

Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to bactericidal properties of medium-chain monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996 Feb;40(2):302-306.

Survival to lipopolysaccharide, cytokine release and phagocyte functions in mice treated with different total parenteral nutrition regimens. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1995 Aug;17(3):493-509.

Antimicrobial activity of lipids added to human milk, infant formula, and bovine milk. J Nutr Biochem. 1995 Jul;6(7):362-366.

Inactivation of enveloped viruses in human bodily fluids by purified lipids. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Jun 6;724:457-464

Inactivation of visna virus and other enveloped viruses by free fatty acids and monoglycerides. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Jun 6;724:465-471

The use of lipid antiviral compounds in lentivirus infections: summary. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Jun 6;724:489-491

Lauric acid inhibits the maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus. J Gen Virol. 1994 Feb;75 (Pt 2):353-361.

Inhibition of growth of dermatophytes by Indian hair oils. Mycoses. 1992 Nov-Dec;35(11-12):363-369.

Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Jan;31(1):27-31.

The effects of fatty acids and their monoesters on the metabolic activity of dental plaque. J Dent Res. 1984 Jan;63(1):2-5.

Anticariogenicity of dietary glycerol monolaurin in rats. Caries Res. 1983;17(2):131-138.

Anticaries and antiplaque potential of free-fatty acids in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacol Ther Dent. 1980;5(1-2):25-33.

Fatty acids and derivatives as antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1972 Jul;2(1):23-28.

Virgin coconut oil supplementation attenuates acute chemotherapy hepatotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate via inhibition of oxidative stress in rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Mar;87:437-442.

High-fat diets rich in saturated fat protect against azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon cancer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Jun 1;310(11):G906-919.

The effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as supplementation on quality of life (QOL) among breast cancer patients. Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Aug 27;13:139.

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Mar;4(3):241-247

The ketogenic diet reverses gene expression patterns and reduces reactive oxygen species levels when used as an adjuvant therapy for glioma. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Sep 10;7:74.

Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides. BMC Cancer. 2008 Apr 30;8:122.

Efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides compared with long-chain triglycerides in total parenteral nutrition in patients with digestive tract cancer undergoing surgery. Kaohsiung M Med Sci 2005;21:487-494.

Antitumor effect of medium-chain triglyceride and its influence on the self-defense system of the body. Cancer Detect Prev. 1998;22(3):219-224.

Implementing a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil in pediatric patients with cancer. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995 Jun;95(6):693-697.

Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: two case reports. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Apr;14(2):202-208.

Influence of various fatty acids on tumour growth in total parenteral nutrition. Eur Surg Res 1994;26:288-297.

Menhaden, coconut, and corn oils and mammary tumor incidence in BALB/c virgin female mice treated with DMBA. Nutr Cancer. 1993;20(2):99-106.

Effects of different lipid sources in total parenteral nutrition on whole body protein kinetics and tumor growth. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1992 Nov-Dec;16(6):545-551.

Nitrogen excretion in cancer cachexia and its modification by a high fat diet in mice. Cancer Res 1989;49:3800-3804.

A comparison of long-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and tumour size in a cachexia model. Br J Cancer. 1988 Nov;58(5):580-583.

The influence of dietary medium chain triglycerides on rat mammary tumor development. Lipids 1987 Jun;22(6):455-461.

Influence of dietary medium-chain triglycerides on the development of N-methylnitrosourea-induced rat mammary tumors. Cancer Res. 1984 Nov;44(11):5023-5028.

Tumor promotion by dietary fat in azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in female F344 rats: influence of amount and source of dietary fat. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1984 Mar;72(3):745-750.

Note: A large number of studies are showing a direct correlation between chronic low-grade bacterial and viral infections and coronary heart disease. The primary culprits are Chlamydia pneumoniae, Cytomegalovirus, and Helicobacter pylori. Each of these pathogenic organisms as well as many others are effectively killed by the medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil. Coconut oil, therefore, can reduce risk of heart disease.

Acute Treatment with Lauric Acid Reduces Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017 Apr;120(4):348-353.

The Impact of Virgin Coconut Oil and High-Oleic Safflower Oil on Body Composition, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Postmenopausal Women. J Med Food. 2017 Mar 9. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2016.0114. [Epub ahead of print]

In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2016 Dec;71(4):410-415.

Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Oct;41(10):1033-1038.

Medium-chain triglycerides promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutr Res. 2016 Sep;36(9):964-973.

A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Indian Heart J. 2016 Jul-Aug;68(4):498-506.

The diverse nature of saturated fats and the case of medium-chain triglycerides: how one recommendation may not fit all. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016 Mar;19(2):81-87.

A Coconut Extra Virgin Oil-Rich Diet Increases HDL Cholesterol and Decreases Waist Circumference and Body Mass in Coronary Artery Disease Patients. Nutr Hosp. 2015 Nov 1;32(5):2144-2152.

An ecological study for Sri Lanka about health effects of coconut. Ceylon Med J. 2015 Sep;60(3):97-99.

Virgin olive oil, palm olein and coconut oil diets do not raise cell adhesion molecules and thrombogenicity indices in healthy Malaysian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jun;69(6):712-716.

Coconut oil supplementation and physical exercise improves baroreflex sensitivity and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Apr;40(4):393-400. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2014-0351. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

Cardioprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats. Pharm Biol. 2015;53(9):1243-1249.

Influence of virgin coconut oil-enriched diet on the transcriptional regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in rats – a comparative study. Br J Nutr. 2014 May 28;111(10):1782-1790

Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Mar 18;160(6):398-406

Retrospective cohort study of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Published Date October, 2013, Volume 2013:9 Pages 1619-1627

Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats – a comparative study. Food Funct. 2013 Sep;4(9):1402-1409.

Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil Published online Jun 5, 2013

Health Properties of Coconut Oil. Agro Food Industry Hi Tech. May/June 2013 Vol 24n3.

Dietary fats and health: dietary recommendations in the context of scientific evidence. Adv Nutr. 2013 May 1;4(3):294-302

Use of dietary linoleic acid for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and death: evaluation of recovered data from the Sydney Diet Heart Study and updated meta-analysis, BMJ 2013;346

Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:629329.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23861707

Impact of a traditional dietary supplement with coconut milk and soya milk on the lipid profile in normal free living subjects. J Nutr Metab. 2013

Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats–compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. Indian J Exp Biol. 2012 Nov;50(11):802-809.

The Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Paradigm for Diverse Neurological Disorders, Front Pharmacol. 2012; 3: 59.

Comparison of native and capric acid-enriched mustard oil effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant protection in rats. Br J Nutr. 2012 Mar;107(6):845-849

Influence of coconut oil administration on some hematologic and metabolic parameters in pregnant rats. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011 Oct;24(10):1254-1258

Dietary fatty acids and oxidative stress in the heart mitochondria. Mitochondrion. 2011 Jan;11(1):97-103

In vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of dried and fermented processed virgin coconut oil. Med Princ Pract. 2011;20(3):231-236

Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):190-195.

Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines, Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011; 20(2): 190–195.

An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity. ISRN Pharmacol. 2011

Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a fresh look at the evidence. Lipids. 2010 Oct;45(10):893-905

Consumption of coconut milk did not increase cardiovascular disease risk in mice, International Journal of Current Research Vol. 6, pp.063-064, July, 2010

Palm oil and health a case of manipulated perception and misuse of science. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3 Suppl):240S-244S.

Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Mar;91(3):535-546

Medium-chain fatty acids: functional lipids for the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Mar;61(3):208-212

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil. Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):151-157.

Successful treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia with a formula diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides. Ann Nutr Metab. 2010;56(3):170-175.

Medium-and long-chain fatty acid triacylglycerol reduce body fat and serum triglyceride in overweight and hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009 Sep;43(9):765-771.

A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase activity in aging cardiomyocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1171:377-384.

Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;63(7):879-886

Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity. Lipids. 2009 Jul;44(7):593-601

Comparison of lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes among south Indian men consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2009 Jan;24(1):76-81.

A good response to oil with medium- and long-chain fatty acids in body fat and blood lipid profiles of male hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(3):351-358.

Medium chain triglyceride oil consumption as part of a weight loss diet does not lead to an adverse metabolic profile when compared to olive oil. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Oct;27(5):547-552.

The benefit of medium-chain triglyceride therapy on the cardiac function of SHRs is associated with a reversal of metabolic and signaling alterations. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Jul;295(1):H136-144

Medium-chain fatty acids as metabolic therapy in cardiac disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2008 Apr;22(2):97-106.

The effect of virgin coconut oil on the cholesterol level of patients with hypercholesterolemia. Fil Fam Phy. 2008 Jan-Mar 46(1):9-17.

Effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in a group of moderately overweight free-living type 2 diabetic Chinese subjects. Metabolism. 2007 Jul;56(7):985-991.

Anti-inflammatory activity of virgin coconut oil. Philipp J Intern Med. 2007;Mar-Apr 45(2):85-88.

Chylopericardium as a complication of cardiac surgery: report of two cases and review of the literature. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2007 Jan-Feb;135(1-2):88-91.

Beneficial effects of coconut water feeding on lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. J Med Food. 2006 Fall;9(3):400-407.

Coconut fats. Ceylon Med J. 2006 Jun;51(2):47-51.

The antioxidant effect of virgin coconut oil on lipid peroxidation. Philipp J Intern Med. 2005 Jul-Aug 43(4):199-204.

Fatty acid oxidation and its impact on response of spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts to an adrenergic stress: benefits of a medium-chain fatty acid. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Mar;288(3):H1425-1436

Comparative Study of Coconut Oil, Soybean Oil, and Hydrogenated Soybean Oil. PJCS. 2004;24

Antibiotic treatment of atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2003 Dec;14(6):605-614.

Octanoate Inhibits Triglyceride Synthesis in 3T3-L1 and Human Adipocytes, The American Society for Nutritional Sciences, J. Nutr. 133:2512-2518, August 2003

Chronic infection and coronary artery disease. Cardiol Clin. 2003 Aug;21(3):333-362.

Coconut Oil: Atherogenic or Not? (What therefore causes Atherosclerosis?). Philippine Journal of Cardiology. 2003 July-Sept; 31(3):97-104.

Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the atherosclerotic plaque of patients with unstable angina and its relation with serology. Int J Cardiol. 2003 Jun;89(2-3):273-279.

A diet rich in coconut oil reduces diurnal postprandial variations in circulating tissue plasminogen activator antigen and fasting lipoprotein (a) compared with a diet rich in unsaturated fat in women. J. Nutr. 2003;133:3422-3427.

Effects of dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols on serum lipoproteins and biochemical parameters in healthy men. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Aug;66(8):1713-1718

A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men. J Nutr. 2002 Jul;132(7):1879-1885.

Results of use of metformin and replacement of starch with saturated fat in diets of patients with type 2 diabetes. Endocr Pract. 2002 May-Jun;8(3):177-183.

Secondary prevention of coronary artery disease with antimicrobials: current status and future directions. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2002;2(2):107-118.

Chronic infections and atherosclerosis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001 Dec;84 Suppl 3:S650-657.

Emerging relations between infectious diseases and coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. CMAJ 2000 Jul 11;163(1);49-56.

The possible role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the origin of atherosclerosis. J Clin Virol 2000 Feb;16(1):17-24.

Effects of total pathogen burden on coronary artery disease risk and C-reactive protein levels. Am J Cardiol 2000 Jan 15;85(2):140-146.

A cross-over study of the effect of a single oral feeding of medium chain triglyceride oil vs. canola oil on post-ingestion plasma triglyceride levels in healthy men. Altern Med Rev 1999 Feb;4(1):23-28.

Inverse association of dietary fat with development of ischemic stroke in men. JAMA 1997 December;278(24):2145-2150.

The role of coconut and coconut oil in coronary heart disease in Kerala, south India. Trop Doct. 1997 Oct;27(4):215-217.

Chronic infections and coronary heart disease: is there a link? Lancet, 1997 Aug;350(9075):430-436.

Review: nutritional support for patients with cirrhosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1997 Apr;12(4):282-286.

Dietary medium-chain triglycerides can prevent changes in myosin and SR due to CPT-1 inhibition by etomoxir. Am J Physiol. 1995 Sep;269(3 Pt 2):R630-640.

Coconut oil consumption and coronary heart disease. Philipp J Intern Med. 1992 May-Jun; 30(3):165-171.

Lipid patterns and dietary habits of healthy subjects living in urban, suburban and rural areas. Ceylon Med J. 1991 Mar;36(1):9-16.

A reevaluation of coconut oil’s effect on serum cholesterol and atherogenesis. J Philipp Med Assoc.1989; 65(1):144-152.

Coconut oil revisited. J Philipp Med Assoc. 1988;64(4):140-142.

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in aging and arteriosclerosis. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1986 Mar-Apr;6(3-4):115-121.

Longitudinal analysis of the relationship between blood pressure and migration: the Tokelau Island Migrant Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1985 Aug;122(2):291-301.

Lee, S.M., et al. Prevention of the metabolic effects of 2-tetradecylglycidate by octanoic acid in the genetically diabetic mouse. Biochem Med 1985;33:104-109.

Cholesterol, coconuts, and diet on Polynesian atolls: a natural experiment: the Pukapuka and Tokelau island studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Aug;34(8):1552-1561.

The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: serum lipid concentration in two environments. J Chronic Dis. 1981;34(2-3):45-55.

Chylothorax as a manifestation of rheumatic mitral stenosis: its postoperative management with a diet of medium-chain triglycerides. Chest 1978;73;672-673

Long-term effect of medium-chain triglyceride on hepatic enzymes catalyzing lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1977;23(1):43-51.

Studies on Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissue and Blood Lipids of Polynesians. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1969 May; 22(5):594-605.

Effects of medium chain length triglyceride (MCT) on serum lipids and lipoproteins in familial hyperchylomicronemia (dietary fat-induced lipemia) and dietary carbohydrate-accentuated lipemia. J Lab Clin Med 1965;66:912-926.

Effect of a saturated medium-chain triglyceride on serum-lipids in man. Lancet. 1960 May 21;1(7134):1105-1108.

Influence Of High-Fat Diets On Growth And Development Of Obesity In The Albino Rat, Tale Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Tale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, Received For publication August 5, 1957

Lauric acid-rich medium-chain triglycerides can substitute for other oils in cooking applications and may have limited pathogenicity. Open Heart. 2016 Jul 27;3(2):e000467.

Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response. Br J Nutr. 2016 Jun;115(12):2122-9.

Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats. J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Jan;53(1):895-901.

Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver, Published: July 22, 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132672

Contrasting metabolic effects of medium- versus long-chain fatty acids in skeletal muscle. J Lipid Res. 2013 Dec;54(12):3322-3333.

Anti-diabetic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin coconut oil. JDM, Vol.1 No.4, November 2011

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Mar;4(3):241-247.

An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity. ISRN Pharmacol. 2011

In vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of dried and fermented processed virgin coconut oil. Med Princ Pract. 2011;20(3):231-236

Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(2):190-195.

Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;42(3):142-145

Medium-chain fatty acids: functional lipids for the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Mar;61(3):208-212

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil. Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):151-157.

Consumption of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols decreases body fat and blood triglyceride in Chinese hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;63(7):879-886

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Medium-chain fatty acid-containing dietary oil alleviates the depression-like behaviour in mice exposed to stress due to chronic forced swimming. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages 601–606

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Caprylic Triglyceride as a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Effectively Improve the Performance and Attenuate the Symptoms Due to the Motor Neuron Loss in ALS Disease, Published: November 07, 2012

A ketone ester diet exhibits anxiolytic and cognition-sparing properties, and lessens amyloid and tau pathologies in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, September 2012

Alternative diets to the classical ketogenic diet–can we be more liberal? Epilepsy Res. 2012 Jul;100(3):278-285. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2012.06.007

Anticonvulsant profile of caprylic acid, a main constituent of the medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet, in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Mar;62(4):1882-1889

The Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Paradigm for Diverse Neurological Disorders, Front Pharmacol. 2012; 3: 59.

A ketogenic diet delays weight loss and does not impair working memory or motor function in the R6/2 1J mouse model of Huntington’s disease. Physiol Behav. 2011 Jul 6;103(5):501-507.

2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Treatment Induces Ketogenesis, Sustains Mitochondrial Function, and Reduces Pathology in Female Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7)

Caregiver Reports Following Dietary Intervention with Medium Chain Fatty Acids in 60 Persons with Dementia. International Symposium of Dietary Interventions for Epilepsy and Other Neurologic Diseases, Edinburgh, Scotland, October 2010.

Ketogenic diets: an historical antiepileptic therapy with promising potentialities for the aging brain. Ageing Res Rev. 2010 Jul;9(3):273-279.

Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs. Br J Nutr. 2010 Jun;103(12):1746-1754.

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A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and recovers age-related decrease in numeric density of SDH-positive mitochondria in cerebellar Purkinje cells of late-adult rats. Micron. 2010 Feb;41(2):143-148.

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Reduced pain and inflammation in juvenile and adult rats fed a ketogenic diet. PLoS One. 2009 Dec 23;4(12):

Dietary enrichment with medium chain triglycerides (AC-1203) elevates polyunsaturated fatty acids in the parietal cortex of aged dogs: implications for treating age-related cognitive decline. Neurochem Res. 2009 Sep;34(9):1619-1625.

Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, Published: 10 August 2009, Nutrition & Metabolism 2009, 6:31

Ketogenic diet protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity via up-regulating glutathione in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Res. 2009 Aug 25;1286:25-31. doi:

Medium-chain fatty acids improve cognitive function in intensively treated type 1 diabetic patients and support in vitro synaptic transmission during acute hypoglycemia. Diabetes. 2009 May;58(5):1237-1244.

A randomized trial of classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets in the treatment of childhood epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009 May;50(5):1109-1117.

Optimal clinical management of children receiving the ketogenic diet: Recommendations of the International Ketogenic Diet Study Group, Volume 50, Issue 2, pages 304–317, February 2009

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Direct assessments of the antioxidant effects of propofol medium chain triglyceride/long chain triglyceride on the brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Anesthesiology. 2008 Sep;109(3):426-435.

Induction of ketosis may improve mitochondrial function and decrease steady-state amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) levels in the aged dog. Brain Res. 2008 Aug 21;1226:209-217.

Growth of children on classical and medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diets. Pediatrics. 2008 Aug;122(2):e334-40. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2410.

Induction of ketosis may improve mitochondrial function and decrease steady-state amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) levels in the aged dog. Brain Res. 2008 Aug 21;1226:209-217.

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Ketogenic diets cause opposing changes in synaptic morphology in CA1 hippocampus and dentate gyrus of late-adult rats. Rejuvenation Res. 2008 Jun;11(3):631-640.

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Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs. Toxicol Res. 2016 Oct;32(4):317-325.

A study of the clinical activity of a gel combining monocaprin and doxycycline: a novel treatment for herpes labialis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2011 Apr 30.

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Coconut Oil in Health and Disease: Its and Monolaurin’s Potential as Cure for HIV/AIDS By Conrado S. Dayrit, M.D., July, 2000

Hydrogels containing monocaprin prevent intravaginal and intracutaneous infections with HSV-2 in mice: impact on the search for vaginal microbicides. J Med Virol. 2000 May;61(1):107-110.

In vitro susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Nov;43(11):2790-2792.

Development and evaluation of microbicidal hydrogels containing monoglyceride as the active ingredient. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Oct;88(10):1011-1015.

Coconut oil compound may treat STDs. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 1999 Sep;13(9):572.

In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Sep;42(9):2290-2294.

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Decreased fat and nitrogen losses in patients with AIDS receiving medium-chain-triglyceride-enriched formula vs those receiving long-chain-triglyceride-containing formula. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Jun;97(6):605-611.

A medium chain triglyceride-based diet in patients with HIV and chronic diarrhea reduces diarrhea and malabsorption: a prospective, controlled trial. Nutrition. 1996 Nov-Dec;12(11-12):766-771.

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Intravenous Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition. Adv Nutr. 2015 Sep 15;6(5):600-610.

Effect of emollient therapy on clinical outcomes in preterm neonates in Pakistan: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2015 May;100(3):F210-5.

The addition of medium-chain triglycerides to a purified fish oil-based diet alters inflammatory profiles in mice. Metabolism. 2015 Feb;64(2):274-282.

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Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Mar;4(3):241-247.

Enteral nutrition improves clinical outcome and shortens hospital stay after cancer surgery. J Invest Surg. 2010 Dec;23(6):309-313.

Enteral diets enriched with medium-chain triglycerides and N-3 fatty acids prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats. Transl Res. 2010 Nov;156(5):282-291.

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Partial replacement of dietary (n-6) fatty acids with medium-chain triglycerides decreases the incidence of spontaneous colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice. J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):603-610.

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Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides. Nippon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2007 Sep;104(9):1352-1358.

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Effect of high amounts of medium chain triglyceride and protein enteral nutrition on nutritional status in patients after major abdominal operation. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007 Jul;10(4):329-332.

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A randomized controlled trial on the use of virgin coconut oil in augmenting weight gain among infants weighing 1500 grams or less; preliminary results. Philipp J Pediatr. 2005 Oct-Dec 54(4):223-229.

Oil massage in neonates: an open randomized controlled study of coconut versus mineral oil. Indian Pediatr. 2005 Sep;42(9):877-884.

Efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides compared with long-chain triglycerides in total parenteral nutrition in patients with digestive tract cancer undergoing surgery. Kaohsiung M Med Sci 2005;21:487-494.

An enteral therapy containing medium-chain triglycerides and hydrolyzed peptides reduces postprandial pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2003;3(1):36-40.

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Medium-chain, triglyceride-containing lipid emulsions increase human neutrophil beta2 integrin expression, adhesion, and degranulation. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2000 Jul-Aug;24(4):228-233.

Medium-chain triglycerides inhibit free radical formation and TNF-alpha production in rats given enteral ethanol. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2000 Mar;278(3):G467-G476.

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Long chain versus medium chain lipids in patients with ARDS: effects on pulmonary haemodynamics and gas exchange. Intensive Care Med. 1998 Oct;24(10):1029-1033.

Medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions enhance macrophage response and increase mucosal mass in parenterally fed rats. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jun;67(6):1265-1272.

Medium-chain triglycerides in artificial nutrition. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 1997 Dec;43(4):197-208.

Decreased fat and nitrogen losses in patients with AIDS receiving medium-chain-triglyceride-enriched formula vs those receiving long-chain-triglyceride-containing formula. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Jun;97(6):605-611.

Efficacy of different triglycerides in total parenteral nutrition for preventing atrophy of the gut in traumatized rats. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1997 Jan-Feb;21(1):21-26.

Nutritional management of the critically ill neurologic patient. Crit Care Clin. 1997 Jan;13(1):39-49.

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Survival to lipopolysaccharide, cytokine release and phagocyte functions in mice treated with different total parenteral nutrition regimens. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1995 Aug;17(3):493-509.

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Efficacy of a mixture of medium-chain triglyceride (75%) and long-chain triglyceride (25%) fat emulsions in the nutritional management of multiple-trauma patients. Nutrition 1995;11:275-284.

Conversion of octanoic acid into long-chain saturated fatty acids in premature infants fed a formula containing medium-chain triglycerides. Metabolism. 1994 Oct;43(10):1287-1292.

Kinetics of medium-chain triglycerides and free fatty acids in healthy volunteers and surgically stressed patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1994 Mar-Apr;18(2):134-140.

Influence of various fatty acids on tumour growth in total parenteral nutrition. Eur Surg Res 1994;26:288-297.

Parenteral nutrition in the critically ill: use of a medium chain triglyceride emulsion. Intensive Care Med 1993;19(2):89-95.

A comparison of medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides in surgical patients. Ann Surg 1993;217:175-184.

Medium-chain triglycerides and long-term parenteral nutrition in children. Nutrition 1992;8:333-337.

Insulinotropic potency of lauric acid: a metabolic rationale for medium chain fatty acids (MCF) in TPN formulation. J Surg Res. 1992 Apr;52(4):328-333.

Effects of different lipid sources in total parenteral nutrition on whole body protein kinetics and tumor growth. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1992;16:545-551.

Long-chain versus medium and long-chain triglyceride-based fat emulsion in parenteral nutrition of severe head trauma patients. Infusionstherapie. 1990 Oct;17(5):246-248.

Effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) as an energy substrate after hepatectomy in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Res Exp Med (Berl) 1990;190:153-162.

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Motility and fertility of the subtropical freshwater fish streaked prochilod (Prochilodus lineatus) sperm cryopreserved in powdered coconut water. Theriogenology. 2010 Sep 1;74(4):551-556.

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Survival and growth of goat primordial follicles after in vitro culture of ovarian cortical slices in media containing coconut water. Anim Reprod Sci. 2004 Apr;81(3-4):273-286.

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of tender coconut water on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2003 Oct;40(5):354-357.

In vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties of Cocos nucifera Linn. water. Nahrung. 2003 Apr;47(2):126-131.

Determination of pesticide residues in coconut water by liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography with electron-capture plus thermionic specific detection and solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr A. 2002 May 31;957(2):201-209.

Green coconut water. J Assoc Physicians India. 1997 Nov;45(11):904.

Maternity and medicinal plants in Vanuatu. I. The cycle of reproduction. J Ethnopharmacol. 1992 Oct;37(3):179-196.

Bukolysis: young coconut water renoclysis for urinary stone dissolution. Int Surg. 1987 Oct-Dec;72(4):247.

Coconut Meat/Kernel

Arginine-rich coconut kernel diet influences nitric oxide synthase activity in alloxandiabetic rats. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 Jan 9.

Effect of dietary coconut kernel protein on the liver and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats: comparison with -arginine and glibenclamide, Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Volume 5, Number 2(2012), 127-133>

Harnessing the Potentials of the Coconut Palm in the Nigerian Economy, World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7 (6): 684-691, 2011

Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections. Parasitol Res. 2011 Apr;108(4):1041-1046.

Arginine rich coconut kernel protein modulates diabetes in alloxan treated rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2011 Jan 15;189(1-2):107-111.

The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes. Parasitol Res (2011) 108:1047–1054

The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol. J Med Food. 2004 Summer;7(2):136-140.

Effect of coconut cake on the bacterial enzyme activity in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine induced colon cancer. Clin Chim Acta. 2004 Apr;342(1-2):203-210.

Influence of coconut kernel protein on lipid metabolism in alcohol fed rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Jan;42(1):53-57.

Effects of processing on protein nutritive quality of coconut Cocos nucifera products. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2003 Winter;58(1):15-25.

Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects. Br J Nutr. 2003 Sep;90(3):551-556.

Hypolipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of coconut protein in hypercholesterolemic rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Oct;39(10):1028-1034.

Effect of dietary fiber on the activity of intestinal and fecal beta-glucuronidase activity during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2001;56(1):13-21.

Effects of different levels of coconut fiber on blood glucose, serum insulin and minerals in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;44(1):97-100.

Influence of dietary fiber from coconut kernel (Cocos nucifera) on the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced lipid peroxidation in rats. J Nutr Biochem. 1999 Sep;10(9):555-560.

Coconut kernel protein modifies the effect of coconut oil on serum lipids. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1999;53(2):133-144.

Hypolipidemic effect of hemicellulose component of coconut fiber. Indian J Exp Biol. 1998 Aug;36(8):786-789.

Histopathological and lipid changes in experimental colon cancer: effect of coconut kernal (Cocos nucifera Linn.) and (Capsicum annum Linn.) red chilli powder. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Sep;35(9):964-971.

Role of coconut (Cocus nucifera) protein in human nutrition. Afr J Med Sci. 1970 Oct;1(4):377-384.

Nutritive value of fortified coconut meal and low-cost protein foods containing coconut meal, groundnut flour and Bengal-gram flour. Ann Biochem Exp Med. 1962 Jul;22:153-160.

A New Human Helminthic Infection in Cuba. The Journal of Parasitology Vol. 26, No. 3, Jun., 1940

The effects of different plant extracts on intestinal cestodes and on trematodes. Parasitology Research, Volume 108, Number 4, 979-984

Coconut Milk

Coconut Eating Population Studies

An ecological study for Sri Lanka about health effects of coconut. Published on 27 Sep 2015. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v60i3.8188

Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans. J Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10):1933-1943.

Milk in the island of Chole Tanzania is high in lauric, myristic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids, and low in linoleic acid reconstructed diet of infants born to our ancestors living in tropical coastal regions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007 Apr;76(4):221-233.

Serum uric acid in traditional Pacific Islanders and in Swedes. J Intern Med. 2004 Mar;255(3):373-378.

Dietary intake and the risk of coronary heart disease among the coconut-consuming Minangkabau in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(4):377-384.

Stroke in Papua New Guinea. Lancet Neurol. 2003 May;2(5):273

Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: a clinical study in Kitava. J Intern Med. 1993 Mar;233(3):269-275.

Determinants of serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in traditional Trobriand Islanders: the Kitava Study. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2003;63(3):175-180.

Large differences in serum leptin levels between nonwesternized and westernized populations: the Kitava study. J Intern Med. 2001 Jun;249(6):553-558.

Contemporary Minangkabau food culture in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2001;10(1):10-16.

Low serum insulin in traditional Pacific Islanders–the Kitava Study. Metabolism. 1999 Oct;48(10):1216-1219.

Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: the Kitava Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Oct;66(4):845-852.

The role of coconut and coconut oil in coronary heart disease in Kerala, south India. Trop Doct. 1997 Oct;27(4):215-217.

Haemostatic variables in Pacific Islanders apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease–the Kitava Study. Thromb Haemost. 1997 Jan;77(1):94-98.

Lipoprotein composition and serum cholesterol ester fatty acids in nonwesternized Melanesians. Lipids. 1996 Feb;31(2):153-158.

Cardiovascular risk factors in a Melanesian population apparently free from stroke and ischaemic heart disease: the Kitava study. J Intern Med. 1994 Sep;236(3):331-340.

Apparent absence of stroke and ischaemic heart disease in a traditional Melanesian island: a clinical study in Kitava. J Intern Med. 1993 Mar;233(3):269-275.

Lipid patterns and dietary habits of healthy subjects living in urban, suburban and rural areas. Ceylon Med J. 1991 Mar;36(1):9-16.

Coronary heart disease and coronary risk profile in a primitive population. Trop Geogr Med. 1991 Jan-Apr;43(1-2):199-202.

Childbearing beliefs among Cambodian refugee women. West J Nurs Res. 1990 Feb;12(1):108-118.

Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, migration and westernisation: the Tokelau Island Migrant Study. Diabetologia. 1989 Aug;32(8):585-590.

Blood pressure patterns and migration: a 14-year cohort study of adult Tokelauans. Am J Epidemiol. 1989 Jul;130(1):37-52.

Ischaemic heart disease in urbanized Papua New Guinea. An autopsy study. Cardiology. 1988;75(1):71-75.

Migration and gout: the Tokelau Island migrant study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1987 Aug 22;295(6596):457-461.

Rheumatic complaints in Tokelau. II. A comparison of migrants in New Zealand and non-migrants. The Tokelau Island migrant study. Rheumatol Int. 1987;7(2):61-65.

Longitudinal analysis of the relationship between blood pressure and migration: the Tokelau Island Migrant Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1985 Aug;122(2):291-301.

Relationship between blood pressure and modernity among Ponapeans. Int J Epidemiol. 1983 Mar;12(1):36-44.

Elevation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure associated with migration: the Tokelau island migrant study. J Chronic Dis. 1983;36(7):507-516.

The Tonga cardiovascular and metabolic study: design, demographic aspects and medical findings. Community Health Stud. 1983;7(1):67-77.

Ageing in the South Pacific. Physical changes with urbanization. Soc Sci Med. 1982;16(17):1539-1549.

Cholesterol, coconuts, and diet on Polynesian atolls: a natural experiment: the Pukapuka and Tokelau island studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Aug;34(8):1552-1561.

The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: serum lipid concentration in two environments. J Chronic Dis. 1981;34(2-3):45-55.

The Tokelau island migrant study: prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus. N Z Med J. 1980 Dec 10;92(673):417-421.

Death in the South Pacific. N Z Med J. 1980 May 28;91(660):375-378.

The Tokelau Island migrant study. Int J Epidemiol. 1974 Sep;3(3):225-232.

Antecedents of cardiovascular disease in six Solomon Islands societies. Circulation. 1974 Jun;49(6):1132-1146.

Epidemiological studies in a total highland population, Tukisenta, New Guinea. Cardiovascular disease and relevant clinical, electrocardiographic, radiological and biochemical findings. J Chronic Dis. 1973 May;26(5):265-290.

Diet, body build, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol levels in coconut-eating Polynesians. Fed Proc. 1962 Jul-Aug;21(4)Pt 2:36-43.